What is web3 infrastructure? Web3.0 is the Internet's Future May Look Like.
After 30 years of Internet, our data architecture is still based on the concept of independent computers. Among them, the data is stored and managed on the server, and the client is sent or retrieved. Every time we interact through the Internet, our data copy will be sent to the server's server, and every time this happens, we will lose control of data. We usually think that web3 is an Internet that uses blockchain technology without trust, no promotion and decentralization. Web3 infrastructure includes all other layers of equipment, blockchain and blockchain technology stacks. Let's discuss what is the infrastructure of web3 together.
Most people think that web is the continuous pillar of modern life -it has been invented and has always existed. However, most of us know that the web today is very different from the initial imagination. In order to better understand this, the short history of web is divided into a loose period -Web 1.0 and Web 2.0 are helpful.
Web 1.0: Read only (1990-2004)
In 1989, in CERN, Geneva, Tim Berners-Lee was busy developing an agreement to become a Wanwei.com. His thoughts? Create an open and decentralized agreement allows to share information from anywhere on the earth.
The first creation of Berners-Lee is now known as "Web 1.0" and happened between 1990 and 2004. Web 1.0 is mainly a static website owned by the company. The interaction between users is almost zero -individuals rarely make content -leading it ahead of it is called only the network.
Web 2.0: Reading and writing (2004 to the present)
With the emergence of social media platforms, the Web 2.0 period began in 2004. Web is not only read, but evolved into readable and writing. The company no longer provides users, but starts to provide platforms to share content generated by users and participate in interaction between users and users. As more and more people go online, a few top companies have begun to control the incomparable flow and value generated on the network. Web 2.0 also gave birth to an advertising -driven income model. Although users can create content, they do not have content or make profits.
Web 3.0: Reading and writing
The premise of "Web 3.0" was the shortly proposed by Ethereum co -founder Gavin Wood in 2014. Gavin proposes a solution to solve many problems that many early encrypted adopors think: Web needs too much trust. In other words, most webs that people understand and use today depend on trusting minority private companies to do the best interests of the public.
What is web3?
Web3 has become a new, better Internet vision. The core of the web3 is to use blockchain, cryptocurrency and NFT to return power to users in the form of ownership. Twitter's post in 2020 is the best: web1 is read only, web2 is readable and written, and web3 will be readable and written.
The core idea of web3
Although the strict definition of Web3 is challenging, some core principles guide them to create.
Web3 is decentralized: ownership is not a large Internet controlled by centralized entities, but is allocated between its builders and users.
WEB3 is indifferent: everyone has an equal opportunity to participate in Web3, and no one will be excluded.
Web3 has local payment: It uses cryptocurrency online consumption and remittances, rather than relying on the outdated infrastructure of banks and payment processors.
Web3 is not trusting: it uses incentives and economic mechanisms, rather than relying on trusted third parties.
Why is web3 important?
Although the killer function of the web3 is not isolated and it is not suitable to be classified as a category, for simplicity, we try to separate them in order to understand.
Web3 has an unprecedented way to allow you to have your digital assets. For example, suppose you are playing web2 games. If you buy items in the game, it will directly bind to your account. If the game creator deletes your account, you will lose these items. Or, if you stop playing games, you will lose the value of investing in the items in the game.
Web3 allows to directly owns ownership by non -alternative to the tokens (NFT). No one, even the creator of the game, has no right to deprive your ownership. Moreover, if you stop playing games, you can sell or trade your game items in the open market and recover their value.
2. Anti -review
The dynamic dynamics between the platform and the content creators are seriously imbalanced.
ONLYFANS is a user -generated adult content website with more than 1 million content creators. Many of them use the platform as their main source of income. In August 2021, onlyfans announced plans to prohibit pornographic content. This statement aroused the anger of creators on the platform, and they felt that their income on the platform they helped create was deprived. After strong opposition, the decision was quickly overthrown. Although the creator won this battle, it highlights a problem with the web 2.0 creator: if you leave a platform, you will lose your reputation and followers you accumulated.
On web3, your data exists on the blockchain. When you decide to leave a platform, you can take away your reputation and insert it into another interface that is more in line with your values.
Web 2.0 requires content creators to believe that the platform will not change the rules, but the review resistance is the native function of the web3 platform.
3. Decentralization Autonomous Organization (DAO)
In addition to having your data in Web3, you can also use tokens similar to company shares as a collective owner. DAO allows you to coordinate the decentralized ownership of the platform and make decisions on its future.
DAO is technically defined as an agreed smart contract, which can automatically make decentralized decisions on resource pools (tokens). Users who have tokens vote for how to use resources, and automatically execute the voting results.
However, people define many web3 communities as DAO. These communities have achieved different degrees of decentralization and automation through code. At present, we are exploring what DAO is and how they may develop in the future.
Traditionally, you will create an account for each platform you use. For example, you may have a Twitter account, a YouTube account and a Reddit account. Want to change your display name or personal information picture? You must perform this operation on each account. In some cases, you can use social login, but this will bring a common problem -review system. Just click on, these platforms can lock you from the entire online life. To make matters worse, many platforms require you to trust them and provide personal identity information to create accounts.
Web3 solves these problems by allowing you to control your digital identity by allowing you to use Ethereum addresses and ENS configuration files. Using Ethereum address can provide a single login of safe, anti -review and anonymous cross -platform.
5. Native payment
Web2's payment infrastructure depends on banks and payment processors, excluding people without bank accounts or people who happen to live in the wrong country. Web3 uses tokens such as ETH to remit money directly in the browser and does not need to be trusted third parties.
Although the current form of web3 has many benefits, the ecosystem must still solve many restrictions.
1. Auxiliary function
The important web3 function, such as the use of Ethereum login, can be used for zero costs. However, the relative cost of transactions still make many people discouraged. Due to the high transaction costs, web3 is unlikely to use in developing countries that are not rich. On Ethereum, these challenges are being resolved through network upgrades and the second -level expansion solutions. This technology is ready, but we need to adopt higher -level technology on the second floor so that everyone can access Web3.
2. User experience
The technical threshold of using web3 is currently too high. Users must understand security issues, complex technical documents, and browse universal user interface. In particular, wallet suppliers are trying to solve this problem, but more progress needs to be made before web3 is adopted on a large scale.
Web3 introduces a new paradigm that needs to learn different mental models differently from Web2.0. As web1.0 became more and more popular in the late 1990s, similar educational activities also occurred; supporters of Wanwei.com used a series of educational technologies to educate the public, from simple metaphor (information highway, browser, online surfing online surfing ) To TV broadcast. Web3 is not difficult, but it is different. Informing these web3 examples to inform Web2 users' education plans is essential for its success.
Ethereum.org contributes to Web3 education through our translation plan, aiming to translate important Ethereum content into as many languages as possible.
4. Centralized infrastructure
The Web3 ecosystem is young and develops rapidly. Therefore, it currently depends on centralized infrastructure (GitHub, Twitter, Discord, etc.). Many web3 companies are eager to fill these gaps, but it takes time to build a high -quality and reliable infrastructure.
Web3 is a young and continuous ecosystem. Gavin Wood created the word in 2014, but many of them did not become a reality until recently. Last year alone, people's interest in cryptocurrencies, improvement of the second -level expansion solution, large -scale experiments in new governance forms, and revolution in digital identity had considerable interest.
We have just begun to use Web3 to create a better web, but as we continue to improve supporting its infrastructure, the future of web looks bright.
Web 3 stack
The web3 stack is still in the initial stage and fragmented, but with a large number of innovations over the years, it has begun to become the focus of attention. The next content is neither mutually exclusive nor completely detailed. On the contrary, it is a framework that is used to think about this continuous development landscape.
Let's start from the bottom.
At the bottom of the stack, we have the agreement layer. It consists of the underlying blockchain architecture, and everything else is built on it.
Bitcoin is their originator. Although it has not played a main role in today's Web3, it has created the ability to have scarce digital assets by using public and private key encryption technology. Following Bitcoin, a series of smart contract platforms have appeared, such as Ethereum, Solana, Avalanche, COSMOS, etc., which are the basis of many web3 applications in production.
Both Bitcoin and Ethereum each have additional agreements on them. Bitcoin has a Lightning Network (for fast and cheap payment) and Stacks (for smart contracts) and other networks. In order to alleviate its capacity restrictions, multiple expansion protocols were built above Ethereum.
With the rise of many and second -level networks, it is necessary to bridge the value between them. Enter the cross -chain bridge as a highway to allow users to transfer the value from one chain to another (you can find a useful cross -chain instrument board here and here).
The infrastructure layer is located above the protocol layer, consisting of interoperable construction blocks (we call the "category primitive"). These construction blocks are highly reliable when performing specific tasks.
This is a dense and diverse layer. The project has built everything from smart contract audit software, data storage, communication protocols, data analysis platforms, DAO governance tools, identity solutions, and financial originals.
For example, Uniswap supports one asset to another asset. Arweave enables data to store in a decentralized manner. ENS domain names can be used as users' identity identity in the web3 world. Users cannot do a lot of things on each independent application. However, when the combination is combined, these categories are like Lego bricks, and web3 developers can use them to build applications.
On the protocol and infrastructure layer is the case layer, all of which are together.
Take blockchain -based games like Axie Infinity as an example. It uses Ethereum tokens and NFT, and it can receive low -cost/high throughput chains called Ronin. Players often use UNISWAP to replace ETH to the tokens needed to play games. Similarly, the decentralized blog platform Mirror uses the storage protocol Arweave to store data. At the same time, it uses Ethereum to allow publishers to get cryptocurrency payment, usually by oriented token to their ENS address.
You will notice that Uniswap appears in our infrastructure and use cases at the same time. This is because, although the core of Uniswap is only a series of smart contracts, it also provides a front end that users can interact directly with it. In other words, it is also an independent application for users and other web3 applications (such as Axie Infinity) infrastructure.
At the top of the stack is the access layer -apps that are used as the entrance point of various web3 events.
Want to play Axie Infinity or pay for your content on Mirror? The first thing you need is a wallet, which is the main entrance point of most web3 applications. Exchange such as the legal currency entrances such as MoonPay, WYRE or Coinbase can help users trade the legal currency as cryptocurrencies in order to start using it.
Through some cryptocurrencies in the wallet, users can go to a polymer like DAPPRADAR to browse and connect to various web3 applications in one place. Other projects such as Rabbithole can help users find and learn how to use various web3 applications. There are polymers such as Zapper, Zerion, and Debank to help users track all activities and assets in various applications.
Finally, we are close to the future. The web2 platforms that have gathered in the encrypted community, such as Reddit and Twitter, will be used as the entrance point of the web3. The long -awaited encryption plan for Reddit will allow some communities to be token, and use tokens and possible NFT rewards to actively participate in users. Twitter has been integrated with Bitcoin's Lightning Network, allowing users to use BTC to give other people tipping.
Constantly developing stack
The above -mentioned protocols, infrastructure, user applications, and access points constitute the world of web3, but the world is constantly developing: the Internet owned by users. In addition to ownership, the strength of the web3 is that its modularity and interoperability. In essence, this means that it can create new and interesting use cases in the above stacks in countless ways -we expect this characteristic to lead to a new and world application that changes the world of Cambrian.
Although the framework and level we emphasize may remain unchanged, our expected projects and opportunities will change tremendously in the next few years.
Web3 is a young and continuous ecosystem. We have just begun to use Web3 to create a better web, but as we continue to improve supporting its infrastructure, the future of web looks bright.
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